Patricia Gray Interior Design

Carlo Mollino


Carlo Mollino image image is a real genius of modern architecture and furniture design in Italy. Born in Turin 1905; d Turin, 1973. He was trained as an architect, the son of the engineer Eugenio Mollino (1873-1953). He studied at the faculty of architecture of the Politecnico, Turin, graduating in 1931. Among early influences were the 'second Futurism' of the post-war period and a close friendship with the painter and scholar Italo Cremona (b 1905). At the beginning of his career Mollino collaborated with his father but also worked independently, producing such notable designs as the headquarters of the Confederazione degli Agricoltori (1933-4), Cuneo, and particularly the headquarters of the Societ? Ippica Torinese (1935-9) in Turin. In the latter Mollino interpreted the doctrines of Neo-plasticism* and Rationalism** with great freedom, adapting spatial, material and technical ideas with complete originality. His first experiments in furnishings also date from this period, including promotional stands, residential rooms and individual items of furniture.

I quote Mollino directly from his writing entitled "Architettura, spazio creato" (Architecture, Created Space): "Only when a work is not explainable other than in terms of itself can we say that we are in the presence of art. This ineffable quality is the hallmark of an authentic work. Whoever contemplates it receives a "shock" that is unmistakable and, above all, unexplainable - a shock that he or she will try in vain to explain in rational terms. There are no reasons. If there were, we would have a way to build a convenient machine for making art through logic and grammar....."

Furniture Design

A world record price for a piece of 20th Century Furniture was set in June 2005 when a piece designed by Carlo Mollino was auctioned by Christie's New York in June 2005. An oak and glass table for Casa Orengo, 1949 sold for $3,824,000.00

In the 1940s and 50s there was an explosion of design in Milan that established the sleek, fashionable and modern image of Italian furniture. On the other side of that movement, coming out of Turin, was Carlo Mollino (1905-1973), working from natural and animal shapes-- tree branches, animal horns, the curve of the human body-- to establish the "streamlined surreal" series of furniture designs. These pieces, evolved from an appreciation for the shapes of Art Nouveau and the architect Antoni Gaudi, were more expressive, and often more sculptural, than those being produced in Milan at the same time. The changes in his style over the years responded to the evolving technology of bending and working with wood.

He interpreted the doctrines of neo-plasticism* and rationalism** of the period with great freedom, adapting spatial, material and technical ideas with complete originality. The figure or the form of the human body is an element which is always present in Mollino's designs.

The furniture that Carlo Mollino designed was often one-off pieces produced specifically for the client whose house he was decorating. so many of his pieces are very rare today. His large range of prototype furnishings were made in the studio of Apelli and Varesio in Turin.

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1950 Apelli and Varesio Studio in Turin

Below are some of Carlo Mollino's furniture designs:

1940 chair for Lisa et Gio Ponti

1944 Armchair for the Minola house. Reissued as model "Ardea"

1946 desk

1946 desk

1948 "Casa Orengo" chair

1949 "Arabesco" low table - plywood and glass

1952 "Gilda" armchair

1954 Gilda armchair

1954 wood table for the Pavia restaurant

1959 chair for the "Lutrario" ballroom

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Interior Design

He began producing furniture, like his 1937 "Milo" mirror, shaped like the Venus de Milo, and designing interiors, like the Miller House (1937). His interiors during this period were characterized by their use of draped fabric to divide a room and by the use of sensuous upholstery like padded velvet. The Miller house also had an innovative lighting system, a mounted fixture on a track, which curved around the ceiling. His other well-known interior was for the Minola house in 1944. The pieces he created for them included a radio-gramophone and a small glass table.

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Casa Miller 1937 Milo Mirror 1937
courtesy Museo Casa Mollino - Torino

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La Casa e l'ideale - Per la rivista Domus, 1943 Casa Ada e Cesare Minola - Interno - Torino, Italia, 1944


Mollino was also an outrageous photographer. Each shoot was a sort of ceremony, he incessantly controlled every aspect of these remarkable images - although the negative, that is born perfect, for him does not exist. Mollino made use of retouching techniques in order to create a certain fantasy he had already constructed in his mind's eye. "everything is allowed, imagination is always saved" wrote Carlo Mollino.


Casa Mollino

In 1960, on the Po river in Turin, Mollino took possession of a villa, the 'warrior’s house of rest'. The magically surreal and mystical flat that Mollino occupied during the last fourteen years of his life, was a place away from the luxurious apartment he shared with his devoted housekeeper. but he never spent a single night there. His purpose may now be obvious: it was known to him that kha decorated his own future tomb in his spare time, and that’s what Mollino did with his18th century apartment. Casa Mollino is his private pyramid. An eclectic space, carefully created by his own aesthetic sense, made up of reminiscences of his life that appear among mirrors, lace curtains and velvet. The apartment was Mollino’s physical space of eternity, decorated only with things to be taken along and accompanied by spiritual messages. Today, Casa Mollino is owned by Fulvio and Napoleone Ferrari, who recreated the original state of the interiors. Open to the public by appointment only.

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Above photos: Inside Casa Mollino

* Neo-Plasticism was an art movement that came during the years between the two World Wars and to some extent, was an reaction on the part of their founders to the irrationality and chaos of "the war to end all wars." Neo-plasticism sought to impose upon art a sense of careful, compositional, and chromatic order. It was an austere exploration of design elements to the exclusion of all else. Neo Plasticism was the brainchild of Piet Mondrian. Artists such as van Doesburg, Severini, Lissitzky, and Arp teamed with the Bauhaus school, hoping to see adopted a universal language of art, and its integration into every aspect of daily life. The movement worked (with considerable success) to influence everything from painting to architecture, furniture design, interior design, consumer products, advertising, and even urban planning. It was utopian. It was socialistic, and it had a strong influence in Germany. Ironically, though it collapsed in disarray amidst the turmoil of Hitler and the Second World War, it was not without influence amongst the utopian planners of the Third Reich.

** Rationalism The intellectual principles of Rationalism are based on architectural theory. Vitruvius had already established in his work De Architectura that architecture is a science that can be comprehended rationally. This formulation was taken up and further developed in the architectural treatises of the Renaissance. Progressive art theory of the 18th-century opposed the Baroque beauty of illusionism with the classic beauty of truth and reason.

Twentieth-century Rationalism derived less from a special, unified theoretical work than from a common belief that the most varied problems posed by the real world could be resolved by reason. In that respect it represented a reaction to historicism and a contrast to Art Nouveau and Expressionism.

Posted by Patricia gray
over 11 years ago

VENICE - Architecture of the 20t...


Rooftop Mosaic on the Hilton Mulino Stucky - Giudecca

This is posting of some of the sites that I will be visiting in July when I am in Venice, as part of the course I am taking on the "History of Italian Architecture 19th - 20th Century Design".

Our Professor Dr Giulia CERANI SEBREGONDI will be leading the tour and lectures. When I think of, or picture Venice in my mind, I think of a centuries old city and Gothic and Renaissance architecture. So I am really looking forward to concentrating on the more recent architectural additions to this city and learning how this has been achieved, and veering away from the typical tourist attractions on the main island of Venice and especially exploring the neighboring Island of Giudecca which I have never been to.

The Island of Giudecca

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• The Giudecca represents the largest individual island in Venice. It is actually made up of eight small islands that are interconnected by a number of bridges as well as a long fondamenta along its homonymous canal.
• Originally it was known as “Spianalonga” a name reminiscent of its oblong and flat shape. Later the name changes to Zuecca, possibly because it hosted an early community of Zudei or European Jews although recent theory places the origin of its name in the fact that there lived the “zudegai” or individuals convicted by the Dogal tribunals.
• For centuries the upper and rich Venetian middle classes have enjoyed their holiday homes on the Giudecca. Here they had their villas, formal gardens and vegetable plots. The Giudecca has also traditionally hosted travelers such as the pilgrims on their way to the Holy Land.

The following are the proposed sites of study for our "field trip" to Venice:

Hilton Mulino Stucky One of Venice's most impressive hotels. Originally built as a flour mill in the 19th century, the building has recently been restored to a Hilton Hotel, and now boasts a spectacular rooftop pool. Set on Giudecca Island and offering breathtaking scenery.


Hotel Hilton Mulino Stucky, formerly a flour mill in the 19th century

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Location on La Giudecca Landing Jetty
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Rialto Bar Skyline Bar

Social Housing by Gino Valle - set on the island of Giudecca, which is directly across the canal from the city of Venice. imageGino Valle was commissioned to draw up the project in 1980. His project arises directly out of a respectful interpretation of the areas: preservation of the Calle dei Lavranieri that runs across the island and the existing garden next to the old cement factory, a compact form of buildings in transverse strips corresponding to the pattern of settlement throughout the island. imageThe intervention is organized in 3 parts: along the 2 lateral canals, four storey towers, in the central part, a “fabric” decreasing from four storeys to two, finally, a “row” of two storey houses runs in parallel to a new canal which forms the boundary between the new residential complex and the southern part of the island where manufacturing is still carried out.

Ex-Junghans by Zucchi - The Giudecca Project: Plan for the area formerly known as Junghans

• The layout of the project by Architetto Cino Zucchi identifies two radically different entities on the island: on the one hand the dense fabric on the North and on the other the more sparse industrial precincts overlooking the lagoon towards the South. The project acts a sort of "microsurgery" in the former industrial area, including both radical transformations by refurbishment or new construction as well as slight modifications of the existing buildings and open spaces. The former Junghans precinct is thus projected towards the city, creating a new outlook toward the extraordinary landscape of the lagoon. New paths are opened in the gaps between the industrial buildings, a new canal is excavated, and a new urban square bordered by the existing school garden generates a long and interesting view toward the South.

Casa De Maria or the House with 3 Eyes


"On on the big canal on La Giudecca, close to the Church of the Zitelle and Elton John's place, there's a cool little building that is known in local dialect as Tre Oci, or Three Eyes. Its given name is the Casa di Maria, named after its architect, the moonlight-obsessed Italian painter, Mario de Maria (Marius Pictor), who built the house from 1910-1913, and who worked here -- mostly in isolation -- until his death in 1924.(Here's a wonderful Venetian moonlight painting by de Maria that hangs in the Musée d'Orsay.)"
The above is excerpted from a wonderful Blog:
written by Norman Hajjar who lived in Venice, with his girlfriend (and now wife) Lorraine, on the island of Giudecca in 1997-99.
Norman Hajjar photo

Gardella's Casa alle Zattere
The "Casa delle Zattere" in Venice (1953) by architect Ignazio Gardella

Gallerie dell'Accademia
The most significant collection of Venetian painting from the fourteenth century to the eighteenth century. Situated on the south bank of the Grand Canal, it gives its name to one of the three bridges across the canal, the Ponte dell'Accademia, and to the boat landing station for the vaporetto water bus.
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Olivetti Concept store

"When in Venice, a traveling architect should not fail to visit Scarpa's Olivetti Store, in Saint Mark's Square, and he or she should not miss the occasion of tasting the riso col nero de sepa (a rice dish where the sauce is prepared with squid ink) resulting from the combination of sepe in tecia (sauté squids) with risotto alla parmigiana. The critical synesthetic imagination, the magic beyond the harmonic resolution of adding the squid ink to the rice, is the same by which Scarpa selected to replace the little stones cast in a mortar paste of the classical Venetian terrazzo floor of the shop with monochromatic murrine. Murrine are sliced pieces of candle-layered Murano-glass used to make the internal ornamentation of millefiori glass-paperweights."
excerpt from
Scarpa created the Venice Olivetti showroom in 1958
Carlo Scarpa (1906-1978) is an architect whose development draws on deep roots in the Veneto-region and on traditional forms and construction methods.
(Sorry I couldn't find any pictures for this store, but I am sure that I will take lots when I am there and post them when I return.)

Querini Stampalia Foundation
The museum Querini Stampalia is a historical sixteenth century building, formerly inhabited by a patriarch of Venice and embellished by stucco and frescoes. The museum on the second floor, preserves one of the richest art collections of the lagoon city with over four hundred paintings from the nineteenth century. In 1961Carlo Scarpa was commissioned to do the restoration of the ground-floor and integrate a short garden for use as an gallery and exhibition space, as the ground floor was frequently unusable due to the overflow of seawater at high tide. The project was built over ten years and incorporates the inevitable water overflow as a fundamental design element in a very ingenious way.

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Glass door between the atrium and the "portego" Photography by Alessandra Chemollo

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The Garden

Biennale Pavillions
The Venice Biennale is a major contemporary art exhibition that takes place once every two years (in odd years). The Venice Film Festival is part of it, as is the Venice Architecture Biennale, which is held in even years. A dance section, the "International Festival of Contemporary Dance", was established in 1999.

The first Biennale was held in 1895; during the first editions, decorative arts played an important role. The event became more and more international in the first decades of the 20th century: from 1907 on, several countries started installing national pavilions at the exhibition. After World War I, the Biennale showed increasing interest in innovative traditions in modern art. Between the two World Wars, many important modern artists had their work exhibited there.

The formal Biennale is based at a park the Giardini that houses 30 permanent national pavilions

Posted by Patricia gray
over 11 years ago

ROME - Hotel Mascagni, Trevi Fou...

Please see my postscript posting to my stay at the Hotel Mascagni HERE: HOTEL MASCAGNI ROME - BEWARE!!

My visit to Rome starts with a full day of a "field trip" with our Prof.ssa Giulia CERIANI SEBREGONDI (see my previous posting). I am staying at the Hotel Mascagni, which was recommended to me by a client of mine as being a very "refined and elegant" Roman Hotel and having the advantage of being situated in a prestigiously central location, only a short walk away from Via Veneto, Piazza Barberini and the Spanish Steps. It was completely restored in 2005.

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It is described on the Hotel Web-site as: "having a sophisticated flavor, simple and elegant and at the same time extremely soothing and welcoming, thanks to the utmost care that the staff gives to their houseguests."
It was redesigned in collaboration with Lorenzo Bellini who is a prominent Italian architect. His web-site has the slogan "the difference is the italian touch" . In the redesign he has maintained its welcoming and informal atmosphere with a more sophisticated style, with furnishings that inspire a re-fashioned classic style; lighter tones in the common areas that, besides giving space a larger dimension, add more luminosity.


The Rooms are mixed with light and warm colors, like maroon, that bring out the precious woods of the furniture.
The Hotel holds contemporary art pieces like the sculpture in bronze by the famous artist of ” Nouveau Realism” Fernandez Arman, instead, in the rooms, the walls are enriched with a particular collection of photographs of Rome done in black and white.


Special care has been dedicated to lighting, that besides creating a play on light that improves the accessories and furnishings in the rooms, it creates the perfect atmosphere for relaxing.

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Nearby Points of Interest

Baths of Emperor Diocleziano - Immediate hotel area
American Catholic Church of S. Susanna - Immediate hotel area
Opera Theatre - Immediate hotel area
Quirinale Palace - Immediate hotel area
S. Bernardo's Church - Behind the hotel
Via Veneto - Walking distance

Trevi Fountain This famous fountain is at the juncture of three roads and it was the Roman custom to build handsome fountain at the endpoint of an aqueduct. This aqueducts supplied water to ancient Rome. In 19 BC, supposedly with the help of a virgin, Roman technicians located a source of pure water some 13 km from the city. (This scene is presented on the present fountain's facade). However, the eventual indirect route of the aqueduct made its length some 22 km (14 miles). This Aqua Virgo led the water into the Baths of Agrippa. It served Rome for more than four hundred years.

image A traditional legend holds that if visitors throw a coin into the fountain, they are ensured a return to Rome. Among those who are unaware that the "three coins" of Three Coins in the Fountain were thrown by three different individuals, a reported current interpretation is that two coins will lead to a new romance and three will ensure either a marriage or divorce. A reported current version of this legend is that it is lucky to throw three coins with one's right hand over one's left shoulder into the Trevi Fountain.

Approximately 3,000 Euros are thrown into the fountain each day and are collected at night. The money has been used to subsidize a supermarket for Rome's needy. The fountain is particularly beautiful at night when it is all lit up.

Trevi Fountain at night.
It has been the filmed in many famous movies:

The Spanish Steps (Italian: Scalinata della Trinità dei Monti) are a set of steps climbing a steep slope between the Piazza di Spagna at the base and Piazza Trinità dei Monti, dominated by Trinità dei Monti, the church that was under the patronage of the Bourbon kings of France, above. The Scalinata is "without a doubt the longest and widest staircase in all Europe.

Image:Spanish-steps.jpgThe monumental stairway of 138 steps was built with French diplomat Étienne Gueffier’s bequeathed funds of 20,000 scudi, in 1723–1725, linking the Bourbon Spanish Embassy to the Holy See.

Piazza Barberini is of course one of the most visited piazzas in Rome where Bernini's glorious Triton Fountain stands. The fountain is one of Bernini's masterpieces in honour of his great protector Urbanus VIII.
The four dolphins carry the coat of arms of the Barberini family while Triton blows a jet of water into the air through a shell held up in his hands.
The Fontana del Tritone
Nearby you can also see the magnificent Barberini Palace whose facade opens up the palace instead of enclosing it within an impermeable block as most other palaces of this epic were constructed.
Construction of the palace began in the early 17th century for the Barberini Family. Originally started by Carlo Maderno, the construction was taken over by Bernini and assisted by Francesco Borromini in 1629 after Maderno's death.

Palazzo Barberini

Posted by Patricia gray
over 11 years ago

ROME - Architecture of the 20th ...


Fresco painted by Achille Funi in 1953, depicting diverse scenes on the origins of Rome Palazzio dei Congressi

Below are some of the sites that I will be visiting in July, as part of my course of studies at the University of Architecture in Ferrara. This "field trip" to Rome is part of the course: "History of Italian Architecture 19th - 20th Century Design", with our Professor Dr Giulia CERANI SEBREGONDI. Whereas most visitors to Rome go to the ancient sites, this trip focuses on 20th Century design, which I find interesting to learn more about, and how it figures in the overall concept and planning of a great Historic city like Rome.


Villaggio Olimpico Housing project built for the 1960 Olympic Games

 Image of Villagio ...

The site selected for the 1960 Olympic Games was a strategic location along the ancient Via Flaminia as it intersected the curve of the Tiber a couple of kilometers from northern gate of the city. This area along the flood plain of the Tiber had long been used as a site for sporting events. Previously it had been the Piazza d´Armi for horse events and there was a hippodrome at the base of the hill below Villa Gloria. There was a national stadium here in 1911 and the site was also used for tennis and became the soccer field for the Lazio team. In the 1931 and 1950 Il Piano regolatore this area was designated as a public park and as a district of palazzine apartment buildings. This was an obvious effort to preserve the open, landscaped quality of the site. During this period the area became a zone of scattered buildings and open spaces and it was selected as the site for the Olympic Village for the 1960 Olympic Games. The choice of this site for the 1960 Olympics was also desirable because of the easy access to Foro Italico across the river to the west where facilities built in the 1930's already existed including an Olympic stadium seating 100,000, the swimming and tennis stadiums and other facilities.

In addition to the two stadiums and 1500 or so dwellings, the Olympic Village is a more-or-less complete community including shopping, schools, and a church. Both stadia were positioned to the south leaving the remaining site for the residential community.


Palazzetto dello Sport was built for the 1960 Summer Olympics. This building was designed by Pier Luigi Nervi and was opened in 1957. It hosted boxing among other sports during the Olympic Games. Presently the "Palazzetto dello Sport" hosts the most important volley matches of "M.Roma Volley", which is the volleyball team of Rome.

The arena is constructed with prefabricated ribbed concrete shell dome 61m in diameter, braced by concrete flying buttresses. Much of the structure was prefabricated, so that the dome was erected in 40 days

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Maxxi Museum The Contemporary Art and Architecture Centre in Rome, formally called the 'Museum of Art for the XXI Century', or MAXXI. This ambitious museum is designed by the London-based architect Zaha Hadid.

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Mosque of Rome
Mosque and Islamic Cultural Center built in 1984 Architect Paolo Portoghesi

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Interior showing laced rib domes


Palazzo della Civiltà del Lavoro was constructed as part of the program of the Esposizione Universale Roma, a large business center and suburban complex, initiated in 1935 by Benito Mussolini for the planned 1942 world exhibition and as a symbol of fascism for the world. It is a large-scale image of how urban Italy might have looked if the fascist regime had not fallen during the war -- large, symmetrical streets and austere buildings of limestone, tuff and marble.

The design of the "Square Colosseum" as it is called, was inspired more to celebrate the Colosseum, and the structure was intended by Benito Mussolini as a celebration of the older Roman landmark. Similar to the Colosseum, the palace has a series of superimposed loggias, shown on the facade as six rows of nine arches each. These numbers are an allusion to the name of the Fascist dictator: "Benito" having six letters and "Mussolini," nine.




Museo Della Civilta Romana Projected by Mussolini as part of his grand exhibition, now the suburb of EUR, this museum uses replicas and models to create a history of Rome. A neglected but fascinating Rome attraction. If it weren't for space restrictions in the city, this museum would be an ideal visitor centre to the Roman Forum. As it is, the trip to EUR, although fascinating, deters short-stay tourists and means they miss out on a helpful and interesting account of the development of Rome.

In a grand purpose-built palazzo, the Museo della Civiltà Romana (Museum of Roman Civilisation) tells the story of Rome: from a collection of huts on the seven hills, to a huge city of temples and palaces. Models of the city and monuments at different stages of history help to give a good idea of Rome as it was; more than you can get from surveying ruins and fragments.



Palazzio dei Congressi This Congress Hall offers extensive hosting for fairs, congresses, conferences and exhibitions, and is described as: The meeting place between rationality and art. It was designed to accommodate the 'Universal Exposition of Rome in 1942.

The start of the second World War delayed its construction. The draft of the Palace, dating back to 1938, was completed only in 1954.

From a stylistic point of view, the architect Adalberto Libera, wanted to give it a noble and elegant look with modern lines together with classicism: the sharpness of architectural solutions, clean forms and attention to detail are today what makes the Congress Palace a relevant example of Rationalist Architecture, admired worldwide.

The building houses major works of art produced by important Italian artists of the 20th century. On the back wall of the Kennedy Hall is a fresco painted by Achille Funi in 1953, depicting diverse scenes on the origins of Rome. In the Art Hall there is a polychrome panel of extraordinary beauty, produced in 1953 by Gino Severini, a major Futurist artist and two magnificent mosaics by Angelo Canevari, made in 1940, and located in the café room.

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Also Included on this field trip:

- Auditorium
- EUR urban planning
- Eur seat & bar-restaurant
- DC party seat
- Eur Post Office



ETR 500 at Milan Central Station.  Milan Train Station

Posted by Patricia gray
over 11 years ago

Ferrara - The City and the Walls


Today is my first day in Ferrara, the ancient walled city located in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy just above Tuscany. It is situated 50 km northeast of Bologna, on the Po di Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po River. The town has broad streets and numerous palaces dating from the 14th & 15th century, when it hosted the court of the house of Este. For its beauty and cultural importance it has been qualified by UNESCO as World Heritage Site. I will be spending the month of July 2008 in this beautiful walled, Medieval City, studying Architecture (see my previous post) at the top ranked University in all of Italy.  I am staying off campus, but I get a bike when I arrive, and will ride back and forth between campus and the Residence.  It is apparently a 10 minute bike ride which is very European and very energy efficient, as well as good exercise.


The Walls

Arriving in Ferrara the Walls around this historic City constitute your first contact with the city: a red curtain of brick encircles it, almost without interruption for nine kilometers, constituting one of the oldest and most impressive defensive systems of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.  Within these walls you can find all of the techniques of defence used in the 1400s and 1500s: city gates, bastions, large towers, gun slots and embrasures. Now these walls have been transformed into a place for meeting friends, practicing sport and recreation, with paths for cycling and walking.

This is a map of Ferrara and you can see the outlines of the wall around the city which is reportedly 9 kilometers long.

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Picture on left:The city walls and one of the gates into the City of Ferrara
Picture on right: Castello Estense de Ferrara has a working drawbridge.


Palazzo dei Diamanti  is one of the most famous palaces in Italy, as well one of the most influential examples of Renaissance European architecture.

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Designed by Biagio Rossetti, it was built starting from 1493 by order of Sigismondo d'Este. The most striking features is the bugnato of the exterior walls: it consist of some 8,500 white (with pink veins) marble blocks carved to represent diamonds, hence the common name "Diamanti". The palace today houses the National Gallery of Art.

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The interior courtyard


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Interior courtyard colonnade 

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Wooden coffered ceiling of the colonnade with detail of a beautiful iron chandelier

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Fountain detail                                                                      Column detail

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                                                              Iron Gate in colonnade

Below are some of the tables in the market in the central piazza. 
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I wanted to buy a bunch of the sunflowers for my room, but two things were against me: 1. I was riding my bike and I am not yet as adept as the Italians in navigating the busy streets packed down with goods, and  2. I did not pack the proper vase in my suitcase to accommodate 3 foot long stems.  So I reluctantly passed. I had to be content just to feast my eyes on them.

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I bought some cheeses from this vendor after tasting slim slivers that he cut off for me.

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The cantaloupes in the picture on the right were so fragrant that I had to buy one.

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After strolling through the market we found a restaurant with an exterior patio for supper and enjoyed some of the good Italian red wine.  I had a dish of pasta laced with asparagus and a sauce of 4 cheeses.

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A view of the facade of the cathedral facing the restaurant where we had supper.

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A view of the castle fortress which is surrounded by a moat ( A deep trench around the rampart of a castle or other fortified place, sometimes filled with water ) which faced the restaurant where we had supper.

It was a wonderful end to my first day in Ferrara.

Posted by Patricia gray
over 11 years ago